**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**2609

# Search results for: steady state gain.

##### 2609 Variation of Uncertainty in Steady And Non-Steady Processes Of Queuing Theory

**Authors:**
Om Parkash,
C.P.Gandhi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Uncertainty,
steady state,
non-steady state,
trafficintensity,
monotonocity

##### 2608 Steady State of Passive and Active Suspensions in the Physical Domain

**Authors:**
Gilberto Gonzalez-A,
Jorge Madrigal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graph,
steady state,
active suspension.

##### 2607 Response Time Behavior Trends of Proptional, Propotional Integral and Proportional Integral Derivative Mode on Lab Scale

**Authors:**
Syed Zohaib Javaid Zaidi,
W. Iqbal

**Abstract:**

The industrial automation is dependent upon pneumatic control systems. The industrial units are now controlled with digital control systems to tackle the process variables like Temperature, Pressure, Flow rates and Composition.

This research work produces an evaluation of the response time fluctuations for proportional mode, proportional integral and proportional integral derivative modes of automated chemical process control. The controller output is measured for different values of gain with respect to time in three modes (P, PI and PID). In case of P-mode for different values of gain the controller output has negligible change. When the controller output of PI-mode is checked for constant gain, it can be seen that by decreasing the integral time the controller output has showed more fluctuations. The PID mode results have found to be more interesting in a way that when rate minute has changed, the controller output has also showed fluctuations with respect to time. The controller output for integral mode and derivative mode are observed with lesser steady state error, minimum offset and larger response time to control the process variable. The tuning parameters in case of P-mode are only steady state gain with greater errors with respect to controller output. The integral mode showed controller outputs with intermediate responses during integral gain (ki). By increasing the rate minute the derivative gain (kd) also increased which showed the controlled oscillations in case of PID mode and lesser overshoot.

**Keywords:**
Controller Output,
P,
PI &PID modes,
Steady state gain.

##### 2606 Real Power Generation Scheduling to Improve Steady State Stability Limit in the Java-Bali 500kV Interconnection Power System

**Authors:**
Indar Chaerah Gunadin,
Adi Soeprijanto,
Ontoseno Penangsang

**Abstract:**

This paper will discuss about an active power generator scheduling method in order to increase the limit level of steady state systems. Some power generator optimization methods such as Langrange, PLN (Indonesian electricity company) Operation, and the proposed Z-Thevenin-based method will be studied and compared in respect of their steady state aspects. A method proposed in this paper is built upon the thevenin equivalent impedance values between each load respected to each generator. The steady state stability index obtained with the REI DIMO method. This research will review the 500kV-Jawa-Bali interconnection system. The simulation results show that the proposed method has the highest limit level of steady state stability compared to other optimization techniques such as Lagrange, and PLN operation. Thus, the proposed method can be used to create the steady state stability limit of the system especially in the peak load condition.

**Keywords:**
generation scheduling,
steady-state stability limit,
REI Dimo,
margin stability

##### 2605 Applications of Entropy Measures in Field of Queuing Theory

**Authors:**
R.K.Tuli

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Entropy,
Birth-death process,
M/G/1 system,
G/M/1system,
Steady state,
Non-steady state

##### 2604 Saturated Gain of Doped Multilayer Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

**Authors:**
Omar Qasaimeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
doping,
multilayer,
quantum dot optical amplifier,
saturated gain.

##### 2603 State of Charge Estimator Based On High-Gain Observer for Lithium-Ion Batteries

**Authors:**
Jaeho Han,
Moonjung Kim,
Won-Ho Kim,
Chang-Ho Hyun

**Abstract:**

This paper introduces a high-gain observer based state of charge(SOC) estimator for lithium-Ion batteries. The proposed SOC estimator has a high-gain observer(HGO) structure. The HGO scheme enhances the transient response speed and diminishes the effect of uncertainties. Furthermore, it guarantees that the output feedback controller recovers the performance of the state feedback controller when the observer gain is sufficiently high. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, the linear RC battery model in ADVISOR is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional linear observer(CLO) and some simulation result is given.

**Keywords:**
SOC,
high-gain,
observer,
uncertainties,
robust

##### 2602 Control Configuration Selection and Controller Design for Multivariable Processes Using Normalized Gain

**Authors:**
R. Hanuma Naik,
D. V. Ashok Kumar,
K. S. R. Anjaneyulu

**Abstract:**

Several of the practical industrial control processes are multivariable processes. Due to the relation amid the variables (interaction), delay in the loops, it is very intricate to design a controller directly for these processes. So first, the interaction of the variables is analyzed using Relative Normalized Gain Array (RNGA), which considers the time constant, static gain and delay time of the processes. Based on the effect of RNGA, relative gain array (RGA) and NI, the pair (control configuration) of variables to be controlled by decentralized control is selected. The equivalent transfer function (ETF) of the process model is estimated as first order process with delay using the corresponding elements in the Relative gain array and Relative average residence time array (RARTA) of the processes. Secondly, a decentralized Proportional- Integral (PI) controller is designed for each ETF simply using frequency response specifications. Finally, the performance and robustness of the algorithm is comparing with existing related approaches to validate the effectiveness of the projected algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Decentralized control,
interaction,
Multivariable processes,
relative normalized gain array,
relative average residence time array,
steady state gain.

##### 2601 Analytical Solutions of Three Dimensional Steady-State Heat Transfer in Rectangular Ribs

**Authors:**
Tao Nie,
Weiqiang Liu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
variable separation method,
analytical solution,
rib,
heat transfer

##### 2600 Resistance to Chloride Penetration of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes: Pumice and Zeolite Effect

**Authors:**
Kianoosh Samimi,
Siham Kamali-Bernard,
Ali Akbar Maghsoudi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Chloride penetration,
immersion,
pumice,
HSSCC,
tidal,
zeolite.

##### 2599 Analysis of a Hydroelectric Plant connected to Electrical Power System in the Physical Domain

**Authors:**
Gilberto Gonzalez-A,
Octavio Barriga

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graph,
hydraulic plant,
steady state.

##### 2598 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

**Authors:**
H. Bhowmik,
A. Faisal,
Ahmed Al Yaarubi,
Nabil Al Alawi

**Abstract:**

Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m^{2} to 2426 W/m^{2} and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×10^{4} to 4.35×10^{4}. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0^{o}, 90^{o}, 180^{o}) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90^{o} and 180^{o} are higher than that of stagnation point (0^{o}). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

**Keywords:**
Steady-state,
transient,
natural convection,
Rayleigh number,
Nusselt number,
Fourier Number.

##### 2597 On the Steady-State Performance Characteristics of Finite Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing under Micro-Polar Lubrication with Turbulent Effect

**Authors:**
Subrata Das,
Sisir Kumar Guha

**Abstract:**

The objective of the present paper is to theoretically investigate the steady-state performance characteristics of journal bearing of finite width, operating with micropolar lubricant in a turbulent regime. In this analysis, the turbulent shear stress coefficients are used based on the Constantinescu’s turbulent model suggested by Taylor and Dowson with the assumption of parallel and inertia-less flow. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation has yielded the distribution of film pressure which determines the static performance characteristics in terms of load capacity, attitude angle, end flow rate and frictional parameter at various values of eccentricity ratio, non-dimensional characteristics length, coupling number and Reynolds number.

**Keywords:**
Hydrodynamic lubrication,
steady-state,
micropolar lubricant,
turbulent.

##### 2596 Steady-State Analysis and Control of Double Feed Induction Motor

**Authors:**
H. Sediki,
Dj. Ould Abdeslam,
T. Otmane-cherif,
A. Bechouche,
K. Mesbah

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
DFIM,
equivalent circuit,
induction machine,
steady
state

##### 2595 Steady State and Accelerated Decay Rate Evaluations of Membrane Electrode Assembly of PEM Fuel Cells

**Authors:**
Yingjeng James Li,
Lung-Yu Sung,
Andrew S. Lin,
Huan-Jyun Ciou

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Durability,
lifetime,
membrane electrode assembly,
proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

##### 2594 Analyzing Current Transformer’s Transient and Steady State Behavior for Different Burden’s Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

**Abstract:**

Current transformers (CTs) are used to transform large primary currents to a small secondary current. Since most standard equipment’s are not designed to handle large primary currents the CTs have an important part in any electrical system for the purpose of Metering and Protection both of which are integral in Power system. Now a days due to advancement in solid state technology, the operation times of the protective relays have come to a few cycles from few seconds. Thus, in such a scenario it becomes important to study the transient response of the current transformers as it will play a vital role in the operating of the protective devices.

This paper shows the steady state and transient behavior of current transformers and how it changes with change in connected burden. The transient and steady state response will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

**Keywords:**
Accuracy,
Accuracy limiting factor,
Burden,
Current Transformer,
Instrument Security factor.

##### 2593 On Four Models of a Three Server Queue with Optional Server Vacations

**Authors:**
Kailash C. Madan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
A three server queue,
Bernoulli schedule server vacations,
queue size distribution at a random epoch,
steady state.

##### 2592 Modeling Converters during the Warm-up Period for Hydrocarbon Oxidation

**Authors:**
Sanchita Chauhan,
V.K. Srivastava

**Abstract:**

Catalytic converters are used for minimizing the release of pollutants to the atmosphere. It is during the warm-up period that hydrocarbons are seen to be released in appreciable quantities from these converters. In this paper the conversion of a fast oxidizing hydrocarbon propylene is analysed using two numerical methods. The quasi steady state method assumes the accumulation terms to be negligible in the gas phase mass and energy balance equations, however this term is present in the solid phase energy balance. The unsteady state model accounts for the accumulation term to be present in the gas phase mass and energy balance and in the solid phase energy balance. The results derived from the two models for gas concentration, gas temperature and solid temperature are compared.

**Keywords:**
Propylene,
catalyst,
quasi steady state,
unsteady state.

##### 2591 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

**Authors:**
K. Benhabib,
X. Pierens,
V-D Nguyen,
G. Mimanne

**Abstract:**

The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

**Keywords:**
Pesticide,
SPME methods,
polyacrylate,
steady state.

##### 2590 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

**Authors:**
Nicholas D. Assimakis

**Abstract:**

In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

**Keywords:**
Discrete time,
linear estimation,
Kalman filter,
Kalman filter gain.

##### 2589 Forming the Differential-Algebraic Model of Radial Power Systems for Simulation of both Transient and Steady-State Conditions

**Authors:**
Saleh A. Al-Jufout

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mathematical Modelling,
Radial Power System,
Steady-State,
Transients

##### 2588 Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc

**Authors:**
Minto Rattan,
Tania Bose,
Neeraj Chamoli

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Creep,
isotropic,
steady-state,
thermal gradient.

##### 2587 Analysis of Electrical Networks Using Phasors: A Bond Graph Approach

**Authors:**
Israel Núñez-Hernández,
Peter C. Breedveld,
Paul B. T. Weustink,
Gilberto Gonzalez-A

**Abstract:**

This paper proposes a phasor representation of electrical networks by using bond graph methodology. A so-called phasor bond graph is built up by means of two-dimensional bonds, which represent the complex plane. Impedances or admittances are used instead of the standard bond graph elements. A procedure to obtain the steady-state values from a phasor bond graph model is presented. Besides the presentation of a phasor bond graph library in SIDOPS code, also an application example is discussed.

**Keywords:**
Bond graphs,
phasor theory,
steady-state,
complex
power,
electrical networks.

##### 2586 Steady State Thermal Analysis and Design of a Cooling System in an AFPM Motor

**Authors:**
K. Sarrafan,
A. Darabi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Axial Flux,
Cooling System,
Permanent Magnet,
Thermal Analysis.

##### 2585 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

**Authors:**
Zakir Husain,
Neem Sagar,
Neeraj Gupta

**Abstract:**

Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

**Keywords:**
Distributed generation,
distribution network,
radial network,
wind turbine generating system.

##### 2584 Steady-State Performance of a New Model for UPFC Applied to Multi-Machines System with Nonlinear Load

**Authors:**
S.Ali Al-Mawsawi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
UPFC,
PWM,
Nonlinear load,
Multi-Machines
system

##### 2583 Effects of Initial State on Opinion Formation in Complex Social Networks with Noises

**Authors:**
Yi Yu,
Vu Xuan Nguyen,
Gaoxi Xiao

**Abstract:**

Opinion formation in complex social networks may exhibit complex system dynamics even when based on some simplest system evolution models. An interesting and important issue is the effects of the initial state on the final steady-state opinion distribution. By carrying out extensive simulations and providing necessary discussions, we show that, while different initial opinion distributions certainly make differences to opinion evolution in social systems without noises, in systems with noises, given enough time, different initial states basically do not contribute to making any significant differences in the final steady state. Instead, it is the basal distribution of the preferred opinions that contributes to deciding the final state of the systems. We briefly explain the reasons leading to the observed conclusions. Such an observation contradicts with a long-term belief on the roles of system initial state in opinion formation, demonstrating the dominating role that opinion mutation can play in opinion formation given enough time. The observation may help to better understand certain observations of opinion evolution dynamics in real-life social networks.

**Keywords:**
Opinion formation,
Deffuant model,
opinion mutation,
consensus making.

##### 2582 On a New Numerical Analysis for the Symmetric Shortest Queue Problem

**Authors:**
Tayeb Lardjane,
Rabah Messaci

**Abstract:**

We consider a network of two M/M/1 parallel queues having the same poisonnian arrival stream with rate λ. Upon his arrival to the system a customer heads to the shortest queue and stays until being served. If the two queues have the same length, an arriving customer chooses one of the two queues with the same probability. Each duration of service in the two queues is an exponential random variable with rate μ and no jockeying is permitted between the two queues. A new numerical method, based on linear programming and convex optimization, is performed for the computation of the steady state solution of the system.

**Keywords:**
Steady state solution,
matrix formulation,
convex set,
shortest queue,
linear programming.

##### 2581 Simulation of Water Droplet on Horizontally Smooth and Rough Surfaces Using Quasi-Molecular Modelling

**Authors:**
S. Kulsri,
M. Jaroensutasinee,
K. Jaroensutasinee

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quasi-molecular modelling,
particle modelling,
molecular aggregate approach.

##### 2580 Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency

**Authors:**
Md Monir Hossain,
Anne Staples,
Kuya Takami,
Tomonari Furukawa

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Natural frequency,
rotational motion,
steady state
rolling,
subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis.